Tag Archives: philosophy

what is the happiness?

It seems that everybody knows what is the happiness,but has different
views about the happiness.Is the happiness all the pleasures of life?
Most people often think :NO MONEY,NO HAPPY.
MONEY,in this world,is all-powerful.It seems that everything depends on MONEY.
It seems that everybody needs MONEY to be HAPPY.Everybody could have money.
But everybody desires to be rich or to become millionaire.With a lot of money,
most people believe that life could be enjoyed fully.Most people have even
learned that the goal of life is all the pleasures!
Plato,a great Greek philosopher,argued that all people desire happiness.
But the problem is how to make happiness.So it is the question about the
knowledge of happiness.
Can we be (really) happy without knowing what is the happiness?
According to Plato,the happiness is the natural consequence of a healthy soul.
He further claimed that because moral virtue makes up the health of the soul,
all people should desire to be virtuous.People sometimes do not seek to be
virtuous,but only because they don’t realize that virtue produces happiness.
For Our Lord Buddha,the happiness is the pre-end of desires,the pre-end of
craving for life.Our Lord Buddha claimed that « When heart has fewer desires,
we have happiness.When desires end,we have peace.»
For Socrates,one of the greatest Greek philosophers,the happiness is simply
the question of justice.It’s not the question of power neither of pleasures.
Anyone who did not commit injustice,is happy.Our objective of life is
« to not commit injustices».
It does not suffice to wish:It is to know.To learn to be just is to be not
unjust.That’s a simple learning,the pratical learning to know about the
justice and the injustice,in order to be just.
To show you his idea above,please read the below dialogue between Socrates
and a man whose name is Pôlos:
Pôlos: But,Socrates,to refute you,it is no good seeking the ancient history!
The events of yesterday and before yesterday suffice amply to prove your error,
and to show that a large number of people committed injustices and live in happiness.

Socrates:Which events?

Pôlos: you see the king of Macedoine Archelaos,son of Perdikkas?

Socrates:No,But I heard of him.

Pôlos:Is he happy or unhappy,to your mind?

Socrates:I don’t know ,Pôlos.I din’t meet him yet,that man.

Pôlos:What?If you have met him,you would know?And otherwise,you don’t know?
So now,don’t you know if he is happy or not?

Socrates:Of course not,by Zeus!

Pôlos: Well,Socrates, even the for the great king of the Persian Empire,
you will say that you don’t know if he is happy or not?

Socrates:And I will tell you the truth.Because I don’t know if he got
a good education,neither if he is just.

Pôlos:What? all the happiness are thus there!

Sorcates:As what I told you ,Pôlos.I assure to you that the good men
who knows what is the good,are happy;and those who are unjust and vulgar are unhappy.

Pôlos: So,in your logic,Archelaos is unhappy?

Socrates: If he is unjust,yes,my friend!

ANALYSIS
But everything is pain, this is the starting point of the Buddhist doctrine.
The birth is suffering, aging is suffering, death is suffering,
grief, lamentation, suffering, sorrow and torment are
pain, union with what we hate is suffering, separation from what we love
is suffering, not getting what one desires is suffering.
So, human life is full of inevitable sufferings.Nobody can escape
the sufferings.The suffering itself comes from the impermanence
of life.
According to Soren Kirkegaard,the greatest philosopher of Denmark,
human life is not designed for pleasure.He told us,yet in the time
given to each of us for our own existence, we strive for happiness
in order to escape anxiety and the deep hopeless depression which is
despair.But there is no escape-no matter how pleasurable and comfortable
we make our lives in order to hide from the truth.For the truth is,
Kierkegaard insists,that all of us live anxiety and despair.This is the
universal human condition.We suffer from anxiety even when we are not
aware of it.,and even when there is nothing to fear,nothing in the
objective world to feel anxious about.This is because at bottom,says
Kierkegaard,our anxiety is not objective at all,it is subjective anxiety-
it is the universal fear of something that is nothing,it is the fear of the
nothingness of human life.

Anxiety pervades the works of Soren Kierkegaard(1813-1855),one of the
forerunners of existentialism,who lived out his short life in Denmark
in the first half of the nineteenth century.
“I stick my finger into existence-it smells of nothing.where am I ?
What is this thing called the world? Who is it who has lured me
into the thing,and now leaves me here? Who am I?How did I come into
the world? Why was I not consulted?
For Kierkegaard,the meaninglessness of my existence fills me with
anxiety and with despair, a sense of hopelessness and deep depression.
The life of modern man is lived in despair,he says,and there is no one
who does not have anxiety in the face of his existence.A year before
he died,Kierkegaard summed up the agony of the beginning and end of life:
“Hear the cry of the …mother at the hour of giving birth,see the
struggle of the dying at the last moment: and say then whether that
which begins and that which ends like this can be designed for pleasure.“

So,For Kierkegaard ,the happiness does not exist because human life is lived
in anxiety and despair.Human life would be happy if it could escape
all sufferings,anxiety and despair.We will not have a happy life while
our life could not escape the sufferings.
That is why Lord Buddha set out to find a way to escape from the
sufferings of human life.And what He found is the eightfold path,along
which one must practice right belief,right intention,right speech right
action,right livelihood,right effort,right thinking and right meditation.
The Buddha belived that if one followed these rules,his soul woild be finally
be freed of the bondage of rebirth and would enter Nirvana.Nirvana,according
to the Buddha,cannot be defined but it is the final result of the end of
all earthly desires when the soul finds perfect peace.

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វិភាគអំពីមិត្តភាពនិងស្នេហា ភាគ៧(ជាភាសាបារំាង)

Les idées contenues dans cet exposé sont ensuite développées et vérifiées par des exemples.Il est question,tout d`abord, de la génération selon le corps et la description générale du but de l’amour est justifiée par ce que nous voyons de ses effets sur tous les animaux.Dans tous ceux de leurs actes qui sont relatifs à l’amour et à l’éducation des jeunes se manifeste l’effort de la nature mortelle pour se rendre,autant qu’elle le peut,éternelle et impérissable.Or elle le peut seulement parce que,sans cesse,à l`être ancien elle fait succéder un être nouveau.Nous disons bien,il est vrai,de chaque animal individuel qu’il est le même dans sa vie et dans son être.Nous disons bien d`un homme que c`est le même homme depuis son enfance jusqu’au moment où il est devenu vieux.Ses paries intégrantes ne sont pourtant pas restés les mêmes et il n’a cessé de se renouveler dans les unes, tandis qu`il se mourait dans les autre,aussi bien dans ses cheveux que dans sa chair,que dans ses os,dans son sang, en un mot dans son corps tout entier. Une reamarque,dont l’objet est,à vrai dire,étranger au développement primitif,vient s`ajouter à cette démonstration. Ce n’est pas seulement dans le corps que s`accomplit cet incessant travail de rénovation,mais aussi dans l’âme. Les manières d`être de celle-ci,ses habitudes,ses opinions, ses désirs,ses joies,ses douleurs,ses craintes,il n`est rien de tout cela qui reste toujours le même pour chaque individu;mais chacune de ces choses naît et meurt à son tour.Encore bien plus surprenant est le cas des connaissances: non seulement il y en a qui naissent tandis que d’autres périssent,de sorte que nous ne restons jamais les mêmes dans l`ordre de nos connaissances,mais encore chacune individuellement est soumise à la même loi.Ce qu`on appelle «étude» se rapporte à ce fait qu`une connaissance s`en va: qu’est-ce en effet que l’oubli,sinon la fuite d’une connaissance?L’étude vient alors créer une nouvelle connaissance à la place de celle qui s`en est allée et conservee ainsi la connaissance en lui donnant une apparente indentité.La conclusion nous ramène à la formule par laquelle se définissent en somme la fonction propre et la fin de l’Amour,à savoir la production en tant qu`elle est le seul moyen que possède l’animal mortel de participer à l’immortalité. La conception générale de l`Amour va maintenant être examinée sous un autre aspect,celui de la génération selon l`esprit.La démonstration sera conduite de la même manière:les faits à expliquer sont d’abord exposés; puis le principe général est rappelé:la fin de l’amour,c’est l’immortalité;enfin de ce principe est deduite l’explication des faits.Les hommes sont possédés du désir de se faire un nom et de laisser après eux, dans le souvenir,plus encore qu`à leurs enfants,ils sont prêts à sacrifier leurs biens,leur repos,leur vie même.Pour cette immortalité de la vertu,il n`est rien que tous ne fassent,et avec autant plus de zèle qu`ils sont meilleurs;car ce qu’ils aiment tous,c’est l`immortalité.Ils ne se tournent pas vers les femmes, comme ceux qui sont féconds suivant le corps,ils ne s’imaginent pas qu’ils gagneront du souvenir par la procréation des enfants;mais, mortels vraiment divins, dès leur jeune âge féconds selon l’âme,eux aussi,dès que le moment est venu de procréer et de produire,ils cherchent de côté et d`autre la beauté dans laquelle ils pourront produire; car ils ne le feront jamais dans la laideur.Toutefois leur pouvoir fécondant s`exerce dans l’âme plutôt que dans le corps, pour les choses dont il appartient à l’âme de posséder les germes ou de les faire fructifier,comme la sagesse et toute espèce de vertu d`une façon générale,mais plus particulièrement la tempérance et la justice,qui sont par rapport à l`administration des États et des familles,la forme la plus belle de la sagesse. Parmi ces hommes privilégiés sont tous les créateurs et, entre les artisans eux-mêmes,ceux qu’on nomme inventeurs. Ce n’est pas à dire que celui qui est fécond selon l`esprit n`aimera pas les beaux corps:ils les aimera au contraire de préférenceaux laids,et,quand il trouve en eux une âme belle et noble et bien née,il éprouve pour cet ensemble un attachement très fort,et auprès de l`homme en qui cet ensemble se rencontre, il lui vient en foule des discours sur la vertu,sur ce que doit être l`homme de bien et sur ce à quoi il doit s`occuper. Enfin il entreprend de l`instruire.C`est en effet par le contact du bel objet,c’est par sa fréquentation que les germes fécondants qu’il portait depuis longtempts en lui sont mis au jour et produits, et soit présent,soit absent par le souvenir,il nourrit cette progeniture, en commun avec son bien-aimé,de sorte que ces deux hommes formentl`un à l’égard de l’autre un union bien plus intime que l’union résultant de la génération d`enfants selon la chair,et leur amitié est bien plus forte,car leur union leur donnent des enfants beaucoup plus beaux et plus impérissable. Il n’est personne qui ne préférait de tels enfants à ceux des hommes;car étant immortels eux-mêmes,ils assurent à ceux qui laissent derrière eux,l’immortalité personnelle du souvenir. Les grands poètes,Hommère,Hésiode,les grands législateurs, Lycurguen,Solon sont donnés en exemple.

Are we living in the cave of Plato?

Are we living in the cave of Plato? Here is an interpretation of
the Allegory of the Cave of Plato,which is specifically
relevant to our own society and to the present time(from
the book:From Socrates to Sartre,by T.Z. LAVINE):
(1) The Allegory of the Cave may be viewed as a
devastating criticism of our everyday lives as being in bondage
to the superficialities,to the shadow rather than to subsance.
Truth is taken to be whatever is known by the senses.
A good life is taken to be one in which we satisfy our desires.
We are unaware that we are living with illusion,superficial
knowledge,and false and conflicting ideals.Our lives are
dominated by the shadow-play on the wall of our cave made
by newspaper headlines ,by radio broadcasts,by the endlessly
moving shadows on the television screen,by the echoing voices
of opinion makers.
(2) The Allegory of the Cave may be taken as
an equally devastating criticism of much of the science of
our time,with its emphasis upon that which is known by the
senses.Science,too,is chained so that it can see only shadows.
Its basis is in sensory observation.Its conclusions are only
in the form of correlations of observation.It does not venture
into true causes or into long-range consequences.The empirical
scientist is not so different from the winner on TV quiz shows
who knows the dates of all Humphrey Bogart films,or from
the prisoners in the cave who excel in identifying the sequence
of shadows on the wall .It is criticism also of our scientific
technology and industry,developing and producing to meet superficial
needs,without regard for our true needs or for moral or environmental
considerations.
(3)It is of course a political allegory .The life in the
cave is the life of politics.Both the leaders and the public
are ignorant and corrupt,without true knowledge of themselves
or of the world,motivated by greed,power and self-gratification.
They are chained in bondage to ignorance and passions,to mob
hysteria for or against fleeting issues,believing in current
ideologies which are the illusions,the shadows of the moment
on the walls of the cave.
(4)It is an allegory of the philosopher-king.The liberated
one,having made the ascent to know the truth and the good,
has a mission: to return to the cave,to bring enlightenment,
to bring the good news ,even though he may be killed for
his services.Plato was thinking of Socrates;we think of Jesus.

Francesco Alberoni explained us about Love and Friendship


Friendship and Love
Friendship is still in our world TODAY?
A first glance might make us fear that it is disappeared.
The business is dominated by the idea of`market, economy and
interest in politics, the race for power.In both cases,
there is little room for honesty in personal relationship.
In addition, the modern world leads us to continual change.
Leaving his neighborhood and his work, it`s eventually to
forget his old friends. We promise to meet again, but
new interests,new needs develop in us, we meet new people.
Who could consider taking an instance of a time to stop and turning
eyes to his past? In Italy, the term of friendship has
a negative connotation that is almost synonymous with
privilege or help.To find a job,to be admitted at the hospital,
obtaining housing, it is essential to play his relationship;
due process is unnecessary, the way that Administrations Committee
does not lead to any rule.You can pass in front of everyone,
It`s of escape rule .This is a concept and eventually
it covers a set of personal values, privileges, large or small,
in a social system that should instead, to be fair, follows rules
of interest based on the general and merit.The modern
world is characterized by changing roles.The friendship
is perceived as an anarchic feeling or as a source of injustice.

In love, leaving the beloved person requires superhuman effort.
I compared the friendship and the feeling with which
it is so often confused: the shock of love(Choc amoureux).Note that
these are two very different phenomenons even opposites.
Love is a fruit, an event that has a beginning,a precise beginning.
It has an origin,a shock, a revelation.The friendship is
not born of a sudden revelation, it becomes itself
through successive meetings .Note that the love is never
very true or less true,it can not be quantified: much,so much,rather or
a little.If I say “I’m in love”, I have just told it.Love follows
the law of all or nothing when the friendship ,however in
various forms, occurs to some different degrees .It oscillates
from minimum to a maximum of perfection.It may be small,
barely a stammer, and can be immense. love, it is full on
its apparition.Friendship is going intensifying.If one speaks
of friendship, He has leading ideas of` utopia.Continue to
analyze Love .Love is passion.Passion in German means
Leidenschaft.Leiden is suffering.The passion indeed,that is always
mixed with Love is suffering.Love is an ecstasy,but also a torment.
Friendship,however,is afraid of suffering.Friendship avoids all that it can.
Friends want to be together for being happy.If they fail,
they leave and put a distance between them. Another fundamental
difference is between the love and friendship :
I fall in love with someone that will not make me my love,
I will continue to be provided as lover(amoureux).Love is not
necessarily a mutual feeling and one of her characters
is to be loved .On the contrary,I apparently it still requires
reciprocity.I can not be `the friend of any man who is not.
Leaving my love requires a superhuman effort.to free oneself from
unshared love,we must do violence and hate other.In the same
time, hating the beloved is seen as the most atrocious suffering ..
In friendship, there is no room for hatred.If I come to hate
a friend, I am no longer his friend ,so the friendship is broken.
In love, the beloved one is transfiguré.Love itself is
more spontaneous, even double.Love should
be very concrete in front of us and a divinity which unites
in itself all possible world, what we project into it.
Love is the revelation of a transcendence.Lover’s prayer
to be loved is a cry of despair.A friend is not transfiguré.
From my friend, I am waiting that he may share the picture
that I have of myself,at least to an reasonable extent .However
he must not judge me too favorably if I could believe
in the flattery of his part.But if his description is too
negative or too far from my thought , I do not make right,
and therefore contradicts a fundamental requirement of
friendship to that which two friends must have their similar own images.
They should not have the same reciprocal view,otherwise they
have nothing to discover each another,but without excessive dissonance
.Between a friend and I, I cannot think of hatred
Anyone can misunderstand me,except him.If a friend
misunderstands me, it’s all over between us.We can continue
to love someone without knowing if she loved us back,
or deceived if he was pleasant or not, if his soul was
generous and petty.Seeking to know is precisely a manifestation of the love
.. After many years, the love is still questions the same
way he always open daisy leaf by leaf.After the first moment
arises one question which will arise in permanently and
only the presence of to be loved who says” Yes “is a response.
What continues its presence and the response continues to
turn, and the question is constant, obsessive, anguishing.
Nobody can say, as requiring reason, “What it matter?
“This is the blind spot of the love that loves what will
always remain inaccessible because it has become an end to
a whole should be. This is also the misery of the love,
be nothing else that is questioning and could not stop it
when the other is indifferent or` hostile.That is
the injustice of the love that knows neither vice nor virtue,
and which rewards good nor punishes the bad.
Love is sublime and miserable, heroic and stupid.Just,
never what it isn’t the love that is the registry of
the court, it is friendship.In love, we torment ourselves
endlessly to tear the behavior of other.We ask with
anxiety that are the motives that determine his choice.That’s
the result of the terrible power that’s being loved has
on our needs .All our desires, all our happiness depends
on him and when we are unhappy, to destroy the causes of
our mischance.Love is by turns tender and resistance
to power that persists beyond our own will.Love, however,
admits no domination.Our friendship is the
product of our will, it ends when the will freely decides ….

In friendship, passion does not exceed.We are much
more demanding moral for our friends that towards others.

The shock in love is a fact, an event, it has its precise beginning,
its origin, a shock,a revelation..The friendship is
reversed, is not born of a `sudden revelation, it becomes
itself through meetings Estates and one’s go deeper approach
In friendship, two friends neither lose nor profit.
We should not be overwhelmed by their thanks .Its deception
or detect it in the open virtue of other, and value it.
A friend needs to know to be open, full of life, funny.
It should be boring or importunate.Too much generous and covering
us with gifts, it would create the need to make and would
create too heavy duties reconnaissance.Friendship should
always be fresh, light, even when it is heroic. In front
of death, friendship can say it’s like that.

The doctrine of the Mean ( by Aristotle)

In anything continuous and divisible,it`s possible
to take a part which is greater or less than,or equal
to ,the remainder;and that in relation either between
excess and deficiency;and I call mean in relation to the
thing whatever is equidistant from the extremes,which is one
and the same for everybody;but I call mean in relation
to us that which is neither excessive nor deficient,and this
is not one and the same for all.For example,if ten is ‘ many ‘and
‘two ‘few’of some quantity ,six is the mean if one takes it
in relation to the thing,because it exceeds the one number and
is exceeded by the other by the same amount;and this is the
mean by arithmetical reckoning.But the mean in relation to us
is not to be obtained in this way.Supposing that ten pounds of
food is large and two pounds a small allowance for an athlete,
it does not follow that the trainer will prescribe six pounds;
for even this is perhaps too much or too little for Milo²
but too much for one who is only beginning to train.
Similarly in the knowledgeable person avoids excess and
deficiency,but looks for the mean and choose it -not the mean
of the thing,but the mean relative to us.
If then , every science³ performs its function well only
when it observes the mean and refers its products
to it(which is why it is customary to say of well-executed
works that nothing can be added to them or
taken away ,the implication being that excess and deficiency
alike destroy perfection,while the mean
preserves it)if good craftsmen,as we hold,work with
the mean in view ;and if virtue,like nature ,is more
exact and more efficient than any art,it follows that
virtue aims to hit the mean.By virtue I mean moral
virtue since it is this that is concerned with feelings and
actions,and these involve excess,deficiency
and a mean.It is possible ,for example,to feel fear,confidence,
desire,anger.pity and pleasure and pain
generally,too much or too little;and both of these are wrong.
But to have these feelings at the right
motive and in the right way is to feel then to an intermediate,
that is to the best,degree;and this is
the mark of virtue.Similarly there are excess and deficiency
and a mean in the case of actions .But it is in the fields and feelings
that virtue operates ;and in them excess and deficiency are failings,whereas
the mean is praised and recognized as a success;and these
are both marks of virtue.Virtue,then,is a mean condition,in as much as
it aims at hitting the mean.Again,failure is possible in many ways
(for evil,as the Pythagoreans represented it ,is a form of the Unlimited,
and good of the Limited),
but success is only one.That is why the one the one is easy and
the other difficult;it is្easy to miss the target and difficult to hit it.Here,then
,is another reason why excess and deficiency fall under evil,
and the mean state under good;
For men are bad in countless ways,but good in only one
……………………………………………………………………………
² : A prodigiously strong wrestler from Croton in S Italy.
³:He means pratical science,as is evident from the context.

what is friendship?

In today’s society,almost everything is in function of money…but you should not mind of this ..this is life,human life.But what is friendship?.As I already told you that Friendship is not like Love.It really need reciprocity of relationship,the relationship of affection.Without reciprocity of relationship,friendship will not become friendship.Well, to understand about Friendship,Aristotle told us that there are three kinds of friendship:
1.Friendship based on pleasure
2.Friendship based on utility
3.Friendship based on goodness.
Well, the first is the kind of friendship between,especially,young people or children…Young people meet to pursue their pleasure….The pleasure is most motivated thing in their relationship.So,when there is no more pleasure,friendship often comes to an end.A proverb said that when the sky is beautiful,the swallows appear,and when the sky is bad,they disappear.
And for the second,it`s a relationship between elderly people,or middle people who seek utility for their own advantages.The friendship with foreigners was also included in this kind of friendship.But utility is not a permanent thing.When the utility disappears ,the friendship often comes to an end.
for the third, which is recommended for all people,it`s a sincere relationship of affection between good people as long as they are good .And you know goodness is the enduring quality!This kind of friendship is most stable because it was not conditioned by anything else than the goodness.it does not depend on impermanent things such as pleasure,utility,money, etc.It`s a sincere relationship of affection.This kind of friendship does not have to cost of anything.However,a question arouses in our mind: why people become friends? Well ,life itself is boring, this world is not free…we are chained …in the cave of Plato….we are living in darkness and see only the shadows of Truth.Often Job,or Career takes most place in our life,so there are recompenses for the distractions with family and friends…Family and friends are our companions with whom we spend free times and also money alternatively.

La femme est le rêve de l`homme.( Soren Kierkegaard)

Mon âme alors se réjouit,mon coeur se met à battre
et ma passion s’enflamme.c’est cette fille-là,la seule
dans le monde entier,qui doit être à moi,qui le sera.
C’est ce qui explique aussi que Dieu en créant Ève ait
fait choir un sommeil profond sur Adam;car la femme est le rêve de l’homme.(…..)Elle ne se réveille qu’au contact de l’amour et avant ce temps,elle n’est que rêve.
Mais dans cette existence de rêve ,on peut distinguer
deux stades : d’abord l’amour rêve d`elle,puis elle rêve de l<amour.
Soren Kierkegaard
IN ENGLISH:

Then my soul rejoices, my heart begins to beat
and passion ignites. is this girl, the only one
in the world, which must be mine and who will be.
This also explains that God created Eve by putting
Adam into a deep sleep fall because the woman is the man’s dream . (…..) She wakes up only in
contact with love and before that time, she is just
a dream.But in this dream existence, we can distinguish
two stages: first the love dreams of her,
then she dreams of love.

Soren Kierkegaard